TPM Book. 7.Quality Maintenance

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

 

1. Quality Maintenance consists of activities that establish equipment conditions that do not produce quality deffects. Quality Maintenance in TPM is aimed to prevent quality deffects from occuring altogether.

2. Preconditions for Successfull Quality Maintenance

  • Abolish accelerated deterioration
  • Eliminate process problems
  • Develop competence operators

3. Basic Elements of Quality Maintenance ProgramImage

Image

4. Quality Maintenance Implementation: Case Study

  • Prepare QA Matrix
  • Analyze production input conditions
  • Prepare a problem chart
  • Evaluate seriousness – perform FMEA
  • Use P-M analysis to devise improvement measures
  • Implement Improvements
  • Review production input conditions
  • Consolidate and confirm checkpoints
  • Prepare quality component table

to be continued.,,

Advertisements

TPM Book. 6.Early Management

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1. Early Management is required in order to save money and maximize effectiveness of equipment etc.

2. Life-Cycle Costing Procedure:

Step 1: Clarify the system’s mission.

Step 2: Formulate several alternative proposals cabable of fulfilling the mission.

Step 3: Identify critreria for evaluating the system and techniques for quantifying these.

Step 4: Evaluate the proposals

Step 5: Document the analytical results and processes

3. MP Design activity minimizes future maintenance cost and deterioration losses of new equipment by taking into account (during planning and construction) maintenance data on current equipment and new technology and by designing for high reliability, maintainabilty, economy, operability and safety.

4. The Early Management System

  1. Investigate and analyze existing situation
  2. Establish an early management system
  3. Debug the new system and provide training
  4. Apply the new system comprehensively

to be continued…

TPM Book. 5.Planned Maintenance

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1. Equipment Management in Process Industries

Eqipment charachteristics:

Static equipment: increasing size, use of novel materials

Rotating machinery: bigger and faster, no standby equipment

Measuring and control equipment: increasingly digitalized

Equipment problems:

  • Equipment failures that cause shutdown
  • Quality abnormalities
  • Unit-consumption abnormalities
  • Capacity reductions
  • Safety and environmental problems

2. Planned Maintenance in Process Industries

In TPM, Planned Maintenance based on autonomous maintenance and specialized maintenance and includes 2 types of activities: activities that improve maintenance and activities that improve maintenace technology and skill.

Maintenace Regimes: Time-based maintenance (TBM), Condition-based maintenance (CBM), Breakdown maintenance (BM), Preventive maintenance (PM), Corrective maintenance (CM)

Equipment Management = Early Equipment Management + Management During Useful Life + Scrap = Planned Maintenance

3. The Planned Maintenance System

There are three types: centralized, decentralized, mixed

4. Improving Maitenance Effectiveness

The basic indicator for effectiveness is output divided by input. First measure existing effectiveness using the following improvement indicator:

Results (cumulative annual cost savings)\(Maintenance cost+annual depreciation of improvement investment)

where Maintenance cost = TBM+CBM+BM+unexpected failure repair

Next, strive for breakthrough in effectiveness by reducing the cost of the inputs by optimazing the overall TBM\CBM\BM system.

5. Building a Planned Maintenance System

The Six Steps for building a Planned Maintenance System:

  1. Evaluate equipment and understand situation.
  2. Restore deterioration and correct weaknesses
  3. Build an informattion management system
  4. Build a periodic maintenance system
  5. Build a predictive maintenance system
  6. Evaluate the planned maintenace system    ..  to be continued…Image

ImageImage

ImageImageImageImage

TPM Book. 4.Autonomous Maintenance

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1. Developing an Autonomous Maintenance Program

Autonomous Maintenance is maintenance performed by production department. Two keys of successfull Autonomous Maintenance Program are thoroughness and continuity. Goals: prevent equipment deterioration though correct operation and daily checks, bring equipment to its ideal state through restoration and proper management, establish the basic conditions needed to keep equipment well-maintained.

2. Production and Maintenance are Inseparable

3. Classifying and Allocating Maintenance Tasks

Maintenance Techniques: normal operation, preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, breakdown maintenance. Activities of Production Department: preventing deterioration, measuring deterioration, predicting deterioration. 

4. Establishing Basic Equipment Conditions

Natural deterioration – Extend lifetime – Corrective maintenance

Accelerated deterioration – Eliminate causes – Establishment of basic conditions

5. Implementing Autonomous Maintenance Program Step-by-Step

  1. Perform initial cleaning
  2. Address contamination sources and inaccesible places
  3. Establish cleaning and checking standards
  4. Conduct general equipment inspection
  5. Perform general process inspection
  6. Systematic autonomous maintenance
  7. Practice full self-management

6. Preparing Autonomous Maintenance Master Plan

Prioritize activities by evaluating equipment, determine important elements. 

Equipment evaluation criteria:

  • Safety and environmental pollution
  • Quality and Yield
  • Working (operating status)
  • Delay factor (opportunity cost)
  • Period (failure interval)
  • Maintainability

7. Autonomous Maintenance Audit – must be done

to be continued…

TPM Book. 3.Focused Improvement

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1. What is focused improvement?

Focused improvement includes all activities taht maximize the overall effectiveness of equipment, processes, and plants through uncompromising elimination of losses and improvement performance. Focused improvement is implemented systematically as projects.

2. Losses and the Six Major Results

Major losses: equipment failure, process failure, idling and minor stoppage, speed, process defect, startup and yield, energy, quality deffect, leakage and spillage, manual work.

Major results: production, cost, safety, quality, delivery, morale

3. Focused Improvement in Practice

Adopt a Macro Approach, be “zero-oriented”, siplify equipment, raise the level of engineering technology.

4. The Step-by-Step Approach to FI

Step 0: Select an improvement topic and form project team

Step 1: Understand situation

Step 2: Expose and eliminate abnormalities

Step 3: Analyze causes

Step 4: Plan improvement

Step 5: Implement improvement

Step 6: Check results

Step 7: Consolidate gains

5. Analytical Techniques for Improvement

P-M analysis (phenomena are analyzed in terms of their physical principles)
Know-why analysis (also called “why-why analysis”)
Fault-tree analysis (FTA)
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
Industrial engineering (IE)
Value analysis (VA)
Just-in-time production (JIT) (Toyota production system)
The original seven QC tools and seven new QC tools (also called the seven management tools)
6. P-M Analysis

P – phenomenon, physical, M – Mechanism, 4Ms (eqiupment, materials, people, methods)

P-M Analysis Steps:

Clarify phenomena
Investigate physcal principles involved
Identify conditions producing the problem
Consider production inputs
Determine optimal conditions
Investigate measurement methods
Identify deficiencies
Formulate and implement improvement plan
7. Failure-Loss Reduction Program

The six zero-breakdown measures:

Eliminate accelarated deterioration by establishing basic equipment conditions (cleaning, lublicating, and tightening
Eliminate accelarated deterioration by complying with conditions of use.
Restore equipment to its optimal condition by restoring deterioration
Restore processes to their optimal condition by abolishing environments that cause accelerated deterioration
Lengthen equipment lifetimes by correcting design weaknesses
Eliminate unexpected failures by improving operating and maintenance
Four phases of zero breakdowns: stabilize failure intervals, lengthen equipment life, periodically resore deterioration, predict equipment life

8. Performance-Loss Improvement Program

Eliminating normal production losses
Reducing abnormal production losses
9. Defect-Loss Reduction Program

10. Process Simplification Program

11. Conclusion – the key to focused improvement is to keep the approach simple. Rather than trying to apply a cocktail of complex theoretical techniques, it is far more effective to adopt the shop-floor approach: first expose and eradicate all minor flaws, restore deterioration, and painstakingly establish basic conditions. More sophisticated improvements become possible only when you solve the basic problems.

to be continued…

TPM Book. 2.Maximazing Production Effectiveness

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1.Production Effectiveness in Process Industries

The effectiveness of plant production depends on the effectiveness with wich it uses equipment, materials, PEOPLE, and methods. There are Performance losses wich could be normal or abnormal, and also Defect and Reprocessing losses.

2. Overall Plant Effectiveness

There are 8 major plant losses that prevent plant from reaching maximum effectiveness:

  • Shutdown
  • Production Adjustment
  • Equipment failure
  • Process failure
  • Normal production loss
  • Abnormal production loss
  • Quality deffects
  • Reprocessing

The Structure of Losses: 

  • Calendar Time = 365*24 = 8760 hours in a year
  • Working Time is actual number of hours a plant is expected to operate (WT = CT – Shutdown Losses), (Shatdown Losses = Shutdown + Production adjustment)
  • Operating Time is time when plant atually operated (OT = WT – Major Stoppage Losses) (Major Stoppage Losses = Equipment falure + Process failure)
  • Net Operating Time is a time during wich a plant is producing (NOT = OT – Performance Losses) (Performance Losses = Normal Production + Abnormal Production)
  • Valuable (Effective) Operating Time is the net time of producing acceptable product (EOT = NOT – Deffect Losses) (Deffect Losses = Quality Deffect + Reprocessing) 
  • Availability = CT-(ShutdownLoss+ MajorStopLoss)/CT*100%
  • Performance Rate = Aver actual production rate (t/h)/Standard production rate (t/h)*100%
  • Average actual prod rate = Actual prod rate (t/h)/Operating Time
  • Quality Rate = (Production quantity (t) – (quality deff loos+repoc loss) (t))/Production quantity (t) = E/D*100%
  • Overall Plant Effectiveness is the product of the availability, performance rate and quality rate.

3. Maximazing the Effectiveness of Production Inputs

Could be done by reducing raw materials and energy losses:\

  • Production cost and unit consumption
  • Control of unit consumption by production
  • Control of unit consumption by season
  • Control of unit consumption by product
  • Reducing raw material losses
  • Preventing raw material losses and saving energy
  • Process simplification
  • Reducing maintanance materials
  • Reducing work losses
  • Reducing cleaning losses
  • New control systems for personnel reduction
  • Process centralization and simplification
  • Reducing management losses
  • Reducing distribution losses
  • Reducing administrative losses
  • Reducing testing and analysis losses

4. Continuous Improvement

Process failure

  • Countermeasures for Leaks from Corrosion and Cracking
  • Countermeasures for Blocks
  • Block Prevention Systems
  • Anti-Contamination Measures
  • Preventing Powder Scatter
  • Preventing Operating Errors

The Philosophy of Zero Equipment Failures

Promoting Measures Against Equipment Failures and Damage

  • Rotating Machinery
  • Columns and Tanks
  • Piping and Valves
  • Electrical Equipment
  • Instrumentation

Promoting Countermeasures for Quality Deffects

to be continued…