TPM Book. 2.Maximazing Production Effectiveness

(c) “TPM in Process Industries”. Edited by Tokutaro Suzuki

1.Production Effectiveness in Process Industries

The effectiveness of plant production depends on the effectiveness with wich it uses equipment, materials, PEOPLE, and methods. There are Performance losses wich could be normal or abnormal, and also Defect and Reprocessing losses.

2. Overall Plant Effectiveness

There are 8 major plant losses that prevent plant from reaching maximum effectiveness:

  • Shutdown
  • Production Adjustment
  • Equipment failure
  • Process failure
  • Normal production loss
  • Abnormal production loss
  • Quality deffects
  • Reprocessing

The Structure of Losses: 

  • Calendar Time = 365*24 = 8760 hours in a year
  • Working Time is actual number of hours a plant is expected to operate (WT = CT – Shutdown Losses), (Shatdown Losses = Shutdown + Production adjustment)
  • Operating Time is time when plant atually operated (OT = WT – Major Stoppage Losses) (Major Stoppage Losses = Equipment falure + Process failure)
  • Net Operating Time is a time during wich a plant is producing (NOT = OT – Performance Losses) (Performance Losses = Normal Production + Abnormal Production)
  • Valuable (Effective) Operating Time is the net time of producing acceptable product (EOT = NOT – Deffect Losses) (Deffect Losses = Quality Deffect + Reprocessing) 
  • Availability = CT-(ShutdownLoss+ MajorStopLoss)/CT*100%
  • Performance Rate = Aver actual production rate (t/h)/Standard production rate (t/h)*100%
  • Average actual prod rate = Actual prod rate (t/h)/Operating Time
  • Quality Rate = (Production quantity (t) – (quality deff loos+repoc loss) (t))/Production quantity (t) = E/D*100%
  • Overall Plant Effectiveness is the product of the availability, performance rate and quality rate.

3. Maximazing the Effectiveness of Production Inputs

Could be done by reducing raw materials and energy losses:\

  • Production cost and unit consumption
  • Control of unit consumption by production
  • Control of unit consumption by season
  • Control of unit consumption by product
  • Reducing raw material losses
  • Preventing raw material losses and saving energy
  • Process simplification
  • Reducing maintanance materials
  • Reducing work losses
  • Reducing cleaning losses
  • New control systems for personnel reduction
  • Process centralization and simplification
  • Reducing management losses
  • Reducing distribution losses
  • Reducing administrative losses
  • Reducing testing and analysis losses

4. Continuous Improvement

Process failure

  • Countermeasures for Leaks from Corrosion and Cracking
  • Countermeasures for Blocks
  • Block Prevention Systems
  • Anti-Contamination Measures
  • Preventing Powder Scatter
  • Preventing Operating Errors

The Philosophy of Zero Equipment Failures

Promoting Measures Against Equipment Failures and Damage

  • Rotating Machinery
  • Columns and Tanks
  • Piping and Valves
  • Electrical Equipment
  • Instrumentation

Promoting Countermeasures for Quality Deffects

to be continued…


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